BAM improves safety in technology and chemistry through research and development, testing, analysis, approvals, advice and information. Based on research work and long-term expert knowledge BAM department 6 (Materials Protection and Surface Technology) contributes to the functional reliability of technical products, constructions and plants which are subject to complex mechanical, chemical, physical, thermal or climate exposure. Optical methods and processes are used in divisions 6.4, 6.7, and 6.8.
The main expertise of this Institute is the development of intelligent sensors and data processing software solutions for commercial, industrial and scientific purposes.
Some of the Institute key products and applications are shown in the figure above, these application are used today for the latest airborne and satellite technology. The knowledge and spin-offs gained from such products have been passed on to commercial and industrial users, and are now used for technology transfer projects for commercial and industrial purposes.
The institute is also dedicated to scientific and research activities, for this education and technology transfer plays a major role, the institute is currently involved with partnerships with global universities and fellow institutes in conducting international summer schools for students, and encouraging and promoting student transfer and scholarships for PhD students.
The Institute also defines and develops geometrically and/or spectral high-resolution sensor systems in the visible and infrared area of the electromagnetic radiation as well as the thematic real time processing of picture data for information relevant for users for strategically purposes. The operational application for such sensors requires an extensive autonomy which allows the independent operating of the system which is used in the development and building of small satellites.
The Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik (FBH) researches electronic and optical components, modules and systems based on compound semiconductors. These devices are key enablers that address the needs of today’s society in fields like communications, energy, health and mobility. Specifically, FBH develops light sources from the visible to the ultra-violet spectral range: high-power diode lasers with excellent beam quality, UV light sources and hybrid laser systems. Applications range from medical technology, high-precision metrology and sensors to optical communications in space. In the field of microwaves, FBH develops high-efficiency multi-functional power amplifiers and millimeter wave frontends targeting energy-efficient mobile communications as well as car safety systems. In addition, compact atmospheric microwave plasma sources are devellopped for medical applications or surface coating.
The FBH is a competence center for III-V compound semiconductors and has a strong international reputation. FBH competence covers the full range of capabilities, from design to fabrication to device characterization.
In close cooperation with industry, its research results lead to cutting-edge products. The institute also successfully turns innovative product ideas into spin-off companies. Thus, working in strategic partnerships with industry, FBH assures Germany’s technological excellence in microwave and optoelectronic research.
The Ferdinand-Braun-Institut develops high-value products and services for its partners in the research community and industry which are tailored precisely to fit individual needs. The institute offers its international customer base complete solutions and know-how as a one-stop agency – from design to ready-to-ship modules.
Research topics & competencies:
- Diode lasers
- Gallium nitride optoelectronics
- Microwave components & systems
- Gallium nitride electronics
- Materials and process technology
The Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute is a world leader in the development of mobile and fixed broadband communication networks and multimedia systems. From photonic components and systems to fiber optic sensors and high-speed hardware architectures, the Heinrich Hertz Institute works together with its international partners from research and industry on building the infrastructure for the future Gigabit Society. Fraunhofer HHI is your competent partner for 3D-broadcasting, gesture controlled man-machine interaction, image processing and transmission and use of interactive media.
Progress in optical technologies is considerably based on novel functional materials with special optical, electrical and photosensitive properties. Functional polymers and polymer-based functional elements for optical technologies are focal points of development at Fraunhofer IAP. These activities can be summarized under the headline “Light as a tool – tools for light”. Research projects combine on an interdisciplinary bases polymer synthesis, processing and the fabrication of optical functional elements and devices. Key aspects in research complexes cover: materials for all-optical structuring used for optical components, security labels and structured biofunctional surfaces; holographic materials for fabrication of diffractive optical elements; liquid crystals and polymers processable by photo-orientation for the fabrication of anisotropic functional layers in display technologies, sensor systems (e.g. retarder, polarizer, anisotropic emitter); semi-conducting and electro-luminescent polymers and nano-composites applicable for organic light-emitting diodes (OLED), organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and organic photovoltaic, development of optical probes for life sciences, optical oxygen measurement in small volumes and development of polymer lasers. Additional subjects of current research cover for example fluorescent materials for special light converter systems, organic lasing and chromogenic materials for smart windows and display application, materials for functionalization of surfaces and optical functional layers in sensor systems as well as organic-inorganic hybrid materials and nano-composites for various applications in optics and photonics.
Tailored on customer needs Fraunhofer IAP offers a complete range of research and development services from high-purity synthesis and analysis of materials, processing and device technologies up to prototype testing based on interdisciplinary experiences of chemists, physicists and engineers and state-of-the-art equipment, such as clean-room facility, as well. Working with partners from optical and chemical industries Fraunhofer IAP acts at the interface between material science and optics and as mediator between chemical and optical industry.
Scientists of Fraunhofer IAP give lectures at Potsdam University, e.g. on polymer chemistry, polymer physics, photochemistry, photophysics and supramolecular chemistry, and take care of PhD students.
Das Fraunhofer IPK in Berlin steht seit über 35 Jahren für Exzellenz in der Produktionswissenschaft. Es betreibt angewandte Forschung und Entwicklung für die gesamte Prozesskette produzierender Unternehmen – von der Produktentwicklung über den Produktionsprozess, die Instandhaltung von Investitionsgütern und die Wiederverwertung von Produkten bis hin zu Gestaltung und Management von Fabrikbetrieben. Zudem übertragen wir produktionstechnische Lösungen in Anwendungsgebiete außerhalb der Industrie, etwa in die Bereiche Medizin, Verkehr und Sicherheit. Analog dazu gliedert sich das Institut in die sieben Geschäftsfelder Unternehmensmanagement, Virtuelle Produktentstehung, Produktionssysteme, Füge- und Beschichtungstechnik, Automatisierungstechnik, Qualitätsmanagement sowie Medizintechnik. Eine enge Zusammenarbeit der Geschäftsfelder ermöglicht die Bearbeitung auch sehr komplexer Themen.
Als Institut der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft orientieren wir unsere Arbeit eng am Bedarf unserer Kunden und Partner: Mit markt- und praxisnaher FuE tragen wir dazu bei, ihre Wettbewerbsfähigkeit nachhaltig zu verbessern. Wir entwickeln zukunftsorientiert neue Lösungen und modernisieren, optimieren und erweitern existierende Technologien und Anwendungen. Dabei ist unser Ziel, ökonomische Erwägungen mit den Maximen Ressourceneffizienz, Nachhaltigkeit und Umweltverträglichkeit in Einklang zu bringen. Neben der Auftragsforschung entwickeln wir im Rahmen von Vorlaufprojekten innovative Konzepte für die Produktion von morgen. Dabei entstehende Basisinnovationen überführen wir gemeinsam mit Partnern in marktreife Produkte.
Sie finden uns unter einem Dach mit dem Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Fabrikbetrieb IWF der TU Berlin im Produktionstechnischen Zentrum (PTZ) am Charlottenburger Spreebogen. Seit der Gründung des Fraunhofer IPK sind die beiden Institute durch eine enge Kooperation verbunden. Das versetzt das PTZ in die einzigartige Lage, die gesamte wissenschaftliche Innovationskette von der Grundlagenforschung über anwendungsorientierte Expertise bis hin zur Einsatzreife abdecken zu können. Über die gemeinsame Entwicklung von Prototypen etwa können effizient universitäre Forschungsergebnisse für die betriebliche Praxis aufbereitet und angeboten werden.
Weitere enge Partner des Fraunhofer IPK sind die BAM – Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung und die Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin. Das Fraunhofer IPK betreibt gemeinsam mit der Charité das »Berliner Zentrum für Mechatronische Medizintechnik« (BZMM). Darin arbeiten Ingenieure und Mediziner eng zusammen, sodass technische Entwicklung und klinische Evaluierung aus einer Hand angeboten werden können. Die Kooperation mit der BAM ermöglicht nicht nur die gemeinsame Nutzung technischer Anlagen, sondern auch eine ganzheitliche Beratung von Kunden und Partnern im Bereich Fügeverfahren, die Fragen der Wirtschaftlichkeit ebenso einschließt wie Sicherheitsaspekte.
Fraunhofer IZM develops packaging technologies for boards, modules and systems to meet the current and future challenges of photonic technology. We adapt established and new microelectronic techniques – such as wafer level packaging (WLP), PCB integration and surface mounting technologies – with available equipment to optoelectronics and other related, applicationspecific systems. Our approach places high value on reliability and maximizing the potential for cost-effective automation.
We offer many different services in this area of expertise, including:
• Manufacturing and assembly of optical components
• Electro-optical circuit boards
• Packaging of electro-optical components
• Integration on wafer-level
• Enhanced photonic and plasmonic systems
• Simulation, design and quantification (thermal, mechanical, optical and RF)
• Qualification, failure and reliability analyses
• Basic system to build spectral analytical equipment
Synchrotronstrahltechnik, non-university research, research and development, scientific facilities
The Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin operates two scientific large scale facilities for investigating the structure and function of matter: the research reactor BER II for experiments with neutrons and the synchrotron radiation source BESSY II, producing an ultra bright photon beam ranging from Terahertz to hard X-rays.
Accelerator development and operation, development of photon and neutron optics Research: Magnetic Materials, Functional Materials, Materials for Solar Energy Technology Research Methods: High-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), Infrared and terahertz spectroscopy, Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM), Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (SXA, SXE, RIXS), X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS, NEXAFS, EXAFS), X-ray microscopy.
Photonics and Optical Technologies
The HTW offers an impressive range of study programmes in five different departments spanning fields from engineering, computer science and economics, to culture and design. Traditional applied sciences like mechanical engineering, automotive engineering and business administration go hand-in-hand with more contemporary and innovative studies such as Information Technology/Networked Systems, Life Science Engineering, Environmental Engineering/Regenerative Energies and Microsystems Technology.
Let us consider the closer microsystems technology. Today this item is penetrating nearly every area of everyday life. Automotive technology, multimedia, medical engineering, bioengineering and genetic engineering, environmental protection – highly complex microsystems can be found everywhere. This study programme at the HTW Berlin runs for seven terms during one of which company placement is done. Apart from imparting students with solid skills in the core areas of engineering, it also provides access to modern simulation and CAD technology, computer science, electronics, sensors and microtechnology.
The HTW Berlin is regularly distinguished for the high quality of its study programmes. Students who wish to spend a part of their studies abroad will find that the HTW offers ideal conditions: it cultivates ties with over 100 other universities worldwide, thus maintaining strong bonds with collaborative partners.
The HTW encourages research and development projects on a wide range spectrum. Within Berlin, the Federal Republic of Germany and Europe, the HTW works together with small and medium-sized businesses, unions, administrations, associations, research and training institutions, and other individuals to fulfill these objectives and goals.
The centre for innovation competence innoFSPEC Potsdam pursues multidisciplinary research in the field of innovative fibre-optical spectroscopy and sensing. As a joint initiative of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP) and the Physical Chemistry group of Potsdam University (UPPC), innoFSPEC unites competences in the areas of imaging multichannel spectroscopy, fibre-optical chemical sensing and multidimensional data processing. Aside from physical-chemical analysis of gases, nano- and microstructured materials like emulsions and suspensions, chemical and biotechnological processes as well as medical applications, astrophotonic components (e.g. complex Fibre-Bragg Gratings) for astrophysical applications are within the focus of interest. Also du to its excellent experimental facilities, innoFSPEC enjoys vivid collaborations with many regional, national and international partners from academia and industry alike.
Non-profit private industrial research institute, realisation of projects in the field of fundamental and applied research especially in Photonics, X-ray physics and X-ray technology. Main competence: X-ray analytics for technological process control; Photonic crystal fibres for laser applications. Organisation of workshops, conferences and exhibitions in these fields also for further education. Since 2001 every two years the conference PRORA “X-ray analytics for technological process control" will be organised by IAP including an industrial exhibition of leading manufacturers of instruments for scientific and industrial applications, participants mainly from Germany and other European countries.
The Institute for Thin Film and Microsensoric Technologies (IDM) is a non-profit research organisation specialized on customer-specific research and development in material sciences. One of the main research topics focuses on the development of functional polymers for applications in optical technologies. Research and development activities cover chemical synthesis of functional materials for optical and sensor systems, polymer processing, structuring and replication techniques as well as development of funcional devices for optical and sensor applications. IDM offers material development, processing and development of optical devices from one source. Among key activities the development of special materials for lithography and all-optical fabrication of diffractive optical elements should be mentioned. The IDM offers customer-specific synthesis of organic and polymeric materials.
LMTB ... from ideas to new optical methods in medical technology and micromachining
LMTB is a nonprofit institute for research, development and training in biomedical optics and applied laser technology. Years of experience and expertise in the areas of analytical and imaging diagnostics, minimally invasive therapy and laser precision machining, move boundaries and enable new solutions. The Laser and Medical Technology GmbH, Berlin (LMTB) is a nonprofit research and development facility for Biomedical Optics and Applied Laser Technology. The main objective is technology transfer, i.e. to develop new concepts in those two areas and to transfer them into industry and into medical practice.
Many ideas at LMTB are due to the proximity to the University Hospital Charité, the three major universities and other non-university research institutions in Berlin. There are several leading medical technology manufacturers among the shareholders of LMTB. A science-driven team of approximately 30 employees is active in a variety of mostly publicly funded research collaborations with academic and industrial partners and in direct contact with the industry.
At the same time, LMTB is a partner in providing customized solutions in the context of commercial R&D projects. It organizes courses and workshops on medical lasers and industrial laser applications. LMTB offers expert advice and the conduction of studies on approval and patent related issues to medical device manufacturers. Molecular methods have become increasingly important for LTMB in recent years compared to traditional laser therapies and diagnostic methods.
For the blood products and transfusion market, LMTB has developed a number of sensors for hemolysis and for gathering several other blood parameters, which are now ready for integration into system solutions of respective companies. Other appliers of this technology are blood donation centers, which are provided with a non-invasive quality control. The main expertise of LMTB is its comprehension of interaction processes between light and irradiated matter. In biomedicine, light propagation in strongly scattering media is especially important, the so-called tissue optics. This is an essential basis for the development of new diagnostic and laser-therapeutic procedures, and corresponding devices. The main focus in the field of material processing is precision machining of transparent and brittle materials and the development of laser-optical components. 3D processing stations and short-pulse laser systems are available for the development of innovative methods for glass processing and photovoltaics. A new trepanning optics was developed by the applied laser technology group of LMTB, which combines a high operating speed with a substantially improved quality of laser drilling and laser cutting.
Brief history of LMTB
Today's LMTB is a result of the merger of two institutions in 1995, that had significantly promoted the use of lasers. One was the Laser Medical Center (LMZ), founded in 1985, the first of such institutions in Germany. The other merger partner was founded in 1987 in Berlin, the Solid-state Laser-Institute (FLI), which gave its sector essential stimuli for many years. Today, LMTB focuses on the R&D transfer using innovative laser and light emitting diodes in material processing and medical diagnostics and therapy.
The Leibniz-Institute for Analytical Sciences – ISAS provides innovative solutions for analytical challenges in modern material and life sciences. The range of our scientific works reaches from fundamental research via developing analytical procedures, techniques and instruments through prototype manufacturing to validation and testing of the results. Thus, we can directly implement methodic developments into new applications. The institute unites scientists from various fields under one roof: e.g. physicists, chemists, biologists and engineers. We are closely connected to the Universities in Dortmund (TU Dortmund), Bochum (Ruhr-University Bochum) and Berlin (TU Berlin) by joint professorships. Our research is geared to the key topics of "material science and optical technologies" and "biomedical research and technologies".
In the Berlin department of ISAS optical spectroscopy is developed for material- interface- and process- analytics. Applications range from analysis of minutest amounts of material to particularly interfaces and nanostructures. Polarisation dependent optical spectroscopy- at ISAS employed in the spectral range from the far IR to vacuum-UV - gives information about composition, structure and electronic properties of a system. Apart from inorganic nanostructures particularly organic molecules as “predefined” units in functional layers and at interfaces become increasingly im-portant. Such structures are technologically important for instance in sensorics, biotechnology, photovoltaics and optoelectronics.
The key topics of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics are cosmic magnetic fields and extragalactic astrophysics. A considerable part of the institute's efforts aim at the development of research technology in the fields of spectroscopy, robotic telescopes, and e-science. The AIP is the successor of the Berlin Observatory founded in 1700 and of the Astrophysical Observatory of Potsdam founded in 1874. The latter was the world's first observatory to emphasize explicitly the research area of astrophysics.The AIP is a foundation according to civil law and is a member of the Leibniz Association. The Leibniz Association is a network of 87 independent research institutes and scientific service facilities, which strive for scientific solutions for major social challenges.
The Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) conducts basic research in the field of nonlinear optics and ultrafast dynamics of lightmatter interactions. It pursues applications which emerge from this research. Ultrashort pulses in a wide spectral range from the far-infrared to hard x-rays, nonlinear phenomena and high intensities are key aspects of this mission for which lasers are both a topic and a tool of research.
The MBI is involved in a large variety of cooperative research projects with universities, research institutions and industrial partners. It offers its facilities and scientific know-how to external researchers within the framework of a guest program.
The OUT e.V. was founded in 1991 as an innovative external research institution. OUT e.V. is a nonprofit-registered association of private law. The statuary aim of OUT e.V. is to promote science and research, especially in the fields of micro- and opto-electronics as well as environmental technologies.
Out e.V. promotes and carries out industrial and basic research and development of prototypes in the fields of optoelectronics, thin film technologies, sensors and data processing. The institution owns two special laboratories with modern measurement equipment and simulation software.
OUT e.V. offers a wide range of successful, active international network management for SME’s working in the field of security technologies.
OUT e.V. has many years experience in project coordination for single projects and research cooperation of varying scale.
OUT e.V. is a dynamic, mature research institution and exemplifies flexible networking between industry and research partners with the help of government support. OUT e.V. is always open to new and innovative technical fields for the benefit of the whole society.
The "Berlin Laboratory for innovative X-ray Technologies" (BLiX) aim to transfer technology in the field of X-ray technologies. Our vision goes beyond the idea of a bilateral, unidirectional transfer from science to industry. BLiX is rather a place of collaborative technology development in the knowledge triangle of research - education - innovation. BLiX is operated jointly by the Technical University of Berlin and the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy. BLiX is located at the Endowed Chair for ""Analytical X-Ray Physics"" of Prof. Birgit Kannengießer.
We support your company in your research and development via
- Joint projects
- Access to our measurement stations and our instrumentation
- Advice, support and referral to our partners
We provide access to modern methods of X-ray spectroscopy via
- Demonstrators and prototypes for new methods
- Referral to our partners
- Support and assistance with experiments
We school and train with
- Continuing education courses
- Master and doctoral theses
The group's activities are focused on the research of light-matter-interaction and its applications. The research, development and education are carried out in an international surrounding of science and industry. Different materials are investigated for their linear and nonlinear properties and transferred into possible applications. Current topics are:
Nonlinear Optics and Optical Spectroscopy
- Colloidal nanoparticles and quantum dots in life sciences, labeling, as a biomarker, in photovoltaics and as single-photon sources
- Semiconductor structures of low dimensionality and their optical properties
- Nanoscaled Quantum Systems as potential ultrafast amplifiers and switches
- Hybrid semiconductor / metal nanostructures for fundamental principles and applications in active and passive nano-plasmonics
Laser Development and Laser Material Processing
- Development of powerful diode and lamp pumped solid-state lasers in the near infrared spectral range from 1 to 2 µm, especially in the eye-safe region from 1.5 to 1.7 µm for material processing, medical and remote sensing applications
- Optimization of neodymium and erbium based laser sources with respect to their spectral and spatial characteristics
- Spectroscopic investigation of crystalline materials in terms of stimulated Raman scattering and further second and third order nonlinear effects
- Development of compact Raman lasers for efficient conversion of the emission wavelength of existing laser sources
Optical Thin Film Coatings
- Calculation, preparation and characterization of dielectric and metal thin film systems for reflective and anti-reflective optical surfaces and for the production of spectral filters, beam splitters and functionalized surfaces
- Antireflection coatings of the terminal surfaces of glass fibers used for the construction of fiber lasers and for transmitting high laser power, e.g. used in material processing and medical therapeutic applications
- Manufacture of hybrid thin film structures on the end-faces of optical fibers for the development of optical fiber sensors, fiber coupled modulators for data communication, and other innovative applications
- Development and characterisation of integrated electro-optic components fabricated in a BiCMOS production process on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) wafers. This includes the development of optical couplers, splitters, spectral filters and resonators as well as active electro-optic structures e.g. modulators, Raman amplifiers and delay generators
- In addition, complex photonic integrated circuits are designed for transceiver applications in optical data communication
- The worldwide smallest high speed modulator in SOI has been demonstrated at the Institute of Optics an Atomic Physics
Technical University Wildau – A Competent Partner for Commercial Businesses and Scientific Institutions
The opening of the Technical University Wildau in 1991 has resulted in academic teaching as well as scientific research and development becoming firmly established and highly esteemed in the region to the south-east of Berlin. Not only businesses and scientific institutions, but also public administrative bodies all profit directly from this development by being able to recruit Wildau graduates directly as young specialists and managers. They also benefit from R&D cooperation and projects, networks for knowledge and technology transfer in addition to further-training programmes which can be tailor-made for companies and a wide range of institutions.
Documented quality control and direct practical relevance are the outstanding hallmarks of 28 degree courses on offer, ranging from engineering, business and administration to legal studies, available both on campus and via distance learning. With more than 4,200 students Wildau is the biggest university in the regional state of Brandenburg. Changing from diploma to bachelor and master programmes has considerably strengthened the academic character of the Technical University Wildau.
Photonic, Laser and Plasma Technologies
Professor Sigurd Schrader’s working group is active in the areas of photonics, optical technologies, laser and plasma technologies, both in teaching and applied research. This group is involved in the following fields:
- Material syntheses and experiments
- Producing optoelectronic elements and components
- Characterizing optoelectronic elements and components
- Process characterization and optimization
This research group cooperates closely with industrial partners, mainly small and medium-sized companies situated in the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region. Additionally, as a participant in national and international networks it has considerable contact with research institutions and universities. There is also direct cooperation on a contractual basis with the IHP Leibniz Institute for Innovative Microelectronics Ltd in Frankfurt an der Oder, which had led to their joint research and training centre (Joint Lab). The main focus of this activity is to develop concepts for innovative silicon based elements and technologies for high-speed electronics and photonics. Among Joint Lab’s activities are experiments aimed at generating graphic layers in order to attain higher limit frequencies up to the terahertz level. This may lead to new applications in sensorics and medical technology.
Microsystems Technology is represented in the teaching and applied research carried out by Professor Andreas Foitzik. Hardware content is predominant in this field and the focus is on biological microsystems technology for life-science products and applications. A dust-free room (for structures as small as a nanometre) and a plastics laboratory (for the quick implementation of prototypes) are available. The wide range of research areas includes:
- Elements for biochips and biosensors
- Reactors in macro and micro fields (including microfluidics)
- Processing surface structures
- Constructing and joining technology (joining smaller elements to a larger system)
- Integrating circuits (signal connection between the micro and macro world)
- Measuring and regulating the overall system
- Micro injection moulding of small plastic elements
- Cutting plastic or metal micro elements
- Mechanical and optical material examination
The group’s expertise and infrastructure are available for applications beyond biological microsystems technology.
With the first Chair worldwide for lighting technology, the field of lighting technology at the TU Berlin has a long tradition. Within the department of electrical engineering and computer science, the field belongs to the Institute for Energy and Automation Technology. As a specialized subject of electrical engineering, it covers a promising field with a variety of interdisciplinary combinations such as building, architecture, environmental engineering and medicine.
Numerous applied research projects are carried out in close collaboration with industry at an internationally recognized level; they successfully enrich the academic work. Important areas of research are, among others, daylight, building automation systems, light sources, photometry, applied light technology and color measurement.
The Institute provides various devices such as mirror gonio-photometers, bi-index measuring station, daylight measurement station, LED gonio-photometer, and spectro-radiometer for measuring radiators, lights, lamps, materials, etc.
Experimental design and product development, with special emphasis on new technologies. Focus in the development of lighting systems and lights using innovative LED and OLED technology. Design implementation in research and innovation-oriented areas.